Io is the dominant source of plasma for the Io plasma torus (IPT), a donut shaped region of plasma centered roughly at Io?s orbital radius of 5.9 Rj. O+, O2+, S+, S2+, SO2+, and electrons with an energy of 10-40 eV are the primary iogenic components of the IPT. Torus plasma properties such as number density and composition have been observed to be variable over time, with the electron number density showing an order of magnitude increase since Pioneer measurements were taken. Thermal measurements indicate the structure of the torus may be divided into a hot narrow ribbon like structure just inside Io?s orbit, a cool inner torus inside the hot ribbon extending from 4.5 – 5.3 Rj, and a hot outer torus extending to 7.5 Rj. Ions and electrons are injected from Io into the IPT either directly, or via extensive neutral gas clouds which coexist with the IPT. Neutral Cloud Theory (NCT) is used to model the plasma properties of the torus, but its predictions fail to agree with certain observations. Corotation of the torus plasma is enforced by JxB forces resulting from a corotating electric field Eco directed radially outward from Jupiter. The IPT radiates much of the energy generated due to corotation in the extreme ultraviolet, ultraviolet, and optical wavelengths. The relative motion of Io through the plasma of the corotating IPT causes Io to act as a unipolar generator, producing a current system which links Io to the ionosphere of Jupiter. This current system is known as the Io flux tube (IFT) and may be modeled as Alfvén waves in the bundle of magnetic field lines which instantaneously thread Io. The energy flux in the IFT is the source for Jupiter?s decametric radio emissions, as well as the auroral emissions at the ends of the IFT.
Antioquia is my God!
Translated from the newspaper “El Colombiano”, Wednesday July 26, 2000
By: Margarita Santa Maria Restrepo, Medellin.
Littlest Zancudo frunas sold, says Gabriel to describe a family of insects that attacked him in a walking weekend. That’s one of the many exaggerations that populate the everyday language and having to do with culture and strategy to entice listeners.
The Keep on the tip of the tongue and its inventory of thought and actions, and continually used to express and describe the good and bad that happens and perceived, to discuss their achievements, failures, joys, dreams and wants. It is an exaggeration, this figure often plays with fiction and some identify as synonymous with being “Antioquia”.
Eavemaría therefore and do not overdo it! The hyperbole is handling equipment and catch all kinds of people, the fisherman (I took out a 47-bocachico of pounds), the traveler (in the mats of the palace I sank ankle-foot), the university
(There were about five thousand cars in the race of observation), the musician and composer (and there is no doubt, Antioquia is my God), the travel agent (Medellin has the best climate in the world), the public official (the city will be the best
corner of America).
But even if it’s an expression linked to this region, it is not unique. There are many examples in the cartoon (a tie for Turbay, a mustache for Serpa). In soap operas and comedy programs (Happy Saturdays and Caponera).
In the literature, Garcia Marquez and Candida Erendira-in-the commercial advertising dell addict smells (which drug dose) of a shoulder dandruff – In other countries-Brazil, a good example. In the book of Guinness, which traps all that
fall outside the average. And in national news, hyperbolic rates of poverty, intolerance and violence.
Big nose of Shroud
With no exaggeration nosed using handkerchief linen and spoons, 30 cms, trapeadoras that take blood to the tile and tall men with snow on the head. As exaggerated! In conversation, letter, modal and gesture, with allusions or direct, with finesse opalabrotas or silently, always between the extremes.
Exaggeration is a matter of culture contains a code understood by who is accustomed to it. It sounds like a lie (and it occurred to Cervantes) and bad taste, who does the driving.
It is question of learning and opportunity. Change the pace of cultural references (the expression “more tied to adobe house” nothing tells you who do not even know this type of housing, or that “it is easier to fill a toilet
train “makes no sense for someone who knows the railroad because of the call progress). may be lost to globalization and the final borders. But
Also, definitely skip the verbal to the visual, to accommodate generations growing up with other schemes. For now remains.
(Translated from the Journal of Avianca).
Without a doubt, the pride of the paisa for his city has its rationale. Medellin has the largest coverage in public services in Colombia, the highest standard of living, is home to Botero, Fernando Gonzalez philosopher, writer Fernando Vallejo, the nadaístas, good football …
And is that Antioch (Antioch not), you many good things that makes this regionalism despite the chaos in the country, Antioquenos before thinking of their land marcharce think the way to try that Medellin is a city with and future projection.
Because, without doubt, one of the cities hardest hit by the crisis has been Medellín. But paise, which have always characterized by his drive and determination, decided to run ahead to 2000, signed in December 1995 a cooperation agreement to draw a map for the Valley
Aburrá. The project involved 40 entities belonging to the public, private and civil. The result, a strategic plan of Medellín and the Metropolitan Area by 2015.
PROJECTION TO THE FUTURE
During the first semester of 1996, developed a public consultation (which identified the priorities for a strategic plan for the city) led by the Mayor of Medellin, a technical board and experts on the issues identified.
The desired Medellin is “a city built by the competitiveness of economic sectors and linked to the global economy, educational city, socially cohesive, responsible in its natural and culturally active, with international projection as an example of a metropolis
exceeding their difficulties through dialogue andthe cooperation. “That’s the dream of Antioquia Medellin.
Medellin, the capital of the mountain, is a city set on a S-shaped valley, sheltered by towering mountain ranges and privileged by its spring weather. A Medellin whose lands have been occupied by the buildings literally lifted into the sky in the geographical impossibility to grow sideways.
There are 220 districts in total and they split their two million inhabitants. Some are just outside the walls, others are working-class neighborhoods, neat and clean. There are the traditional witness the future of the city in its different periods, with visible signs of the architectural changes that come under the arm of progress. Like the Prado Museum, San Benito, Laureles, Buenos Aires, Guayabal, Aranjuez and many more.
Some are luxurious and stately gardens and broad avenues round with trees. There are also those who seem cribs, onions are planted in the yard and clothes to dry on the windows, or those who grew disorderly, human pace and with the arrival of the peasants who came to try their luck in the city, settled definitely in it and were marked with their footprints, their corner stores, their canteens and engineering workshops.
As a city of fairs and meeting point for industrial excellence of the Americas, throughout the year, the Bella Villa is host to businessmen and tourists who check their benefits. Whether you are here as the star of the Bullfighting Festival of the Candelaria January; of Colombiatex in February, the Book Fair in March, the International Transportation Fair in June, the famous Flower Festival in August with its parade of silleteros or December folk parades, always will see the goodness of this land and the warmth of its people.
According to the source, the traveler arrives at the airport in Rio Negro José María Córdova, forty-five minutes from Medellin, modern and functional. Upon arrival, the left harmonic mode almost cantadito people talking, it makes the visitor feel welcome land, populated by friendly and helpful hosts with a recognized vocation. The other airport, the old Olaya Herrera, located in the middle of the city, is responsible for receiving domestic flights. Just get out of this and even without taking the taxi, Medellin hit shows his face stuck to provincial city, eternally under construction because every day is renewed, a city where tradition is a memory and history collapses unscrupulous.
This is Medellín, a city heartthrob because he knows, as few, and strangers transmit vitality of ever-growing metropolis, with its peculiar sincerity of rough edges, it shows all its faces, their riches, their wants, their values, defects, which one way or another warm up the human breath in the city that will beat beneath his feet, strong, feisty, festive and human for that very reason, for human, you will carry it in your heart.
The city of Medellin, located in the department of Antioquia, located in the Valley of Aburrá and 1,525 meters above sea level, and an average of 24 degrees celcius, is one of the largest cities in Colombia. Founded in 1675 and converted into an industrial center since the early 30′s. It is today a leading example of Antioquia and strength with open arms welcomes visitors from around the world. The mass transit system of the “Valley of Aburrá” or subway in the city of Medellin, composed of 25 stations that cover much of the metropolitan area.
Thanks to the initiative of the city’s public empreas has recovered amazingly the Medellin river, thus enabling other urban space. Aburrá Valley, named after the native Indians of the region, was discovered in 1541. (South East View of the City). Medellin mixes majesty Aburrá Valley (named for the Indians to the arrival of the Spanish) is now a harmonious combination of structures of the twentieth century, with the green of spring trees and towering mountains that serves walls around the city.
Although Medellin is today one of the capital cities, for their development, we can find in it some architectural contrast to the early, as is the Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Help.
The Flag: The University of Antioquia, since its foundation had among its emblems one green and white flag. In 1962, by order of the provincial government made official the use of a flag should have two equal stripes, the upper and lower green white, ie the same as the University of Antioquia. The white color symbolizes integrity, firmness, loyalty, dignity, honesty and uprightness. Green, meanwhile, represents hope, abundance, freedom, faith, friendship, service and respect. Green is the predominant color in the mountains of Antioquia.
The Hymn: The Author of the lyrics Antioquia was Epifanio Mejia, and was music by the maestro Gonzalo Vidal. In 1962 it was officially adopted as the anthem of Antioquia. Here follows a rough translation.
Oh freedom which to perfume,
the mountains of my land,
let my children aspire,
your fragrant essences,
Oh Freedom!, O Liberty!.
I love the sun because he is free,
on the blue field,
Hurricane because whistles,
freely in the jungles.
The ax that my elders,
I stopped by inheritance,
I love her because his punches,
echo free accents.
Despotic tyrants forge,
long and hard chains,
for the slave humble
knees kissing her feet.
I was born proud and free,
on a mountain of Antioquia,
I take iron hands,
because my neck is heavy.
I was born on a mountain,
my sweet mother tells me,
the sun shone my crib,
on a bare mountain.
I was born free as the wind,
of forests in Antioquia,
as Andean Condor,
that from mountain to mountain flying.
Eagle chick is born,
on top of a rock,
always like peaks,
where cool winds.
Coat of Antioquia: A matron dressed and adorned to the Indian, sitting at the foot of a hill gold between banana and palm, with a river flowing at its feet, adorning his head with a cap of the French Revolution. The rulers wanted to record not only the autonomy of the new state, it symbolized the golden mountain of wealth and virtue, with the palm, the triumphs and victories, with bananas, abundance, with the cap, liberty and the matron, race Antioquia.
The Organization was a working association that researched, applied and trains in the field of new technologies and also offered-from the innovative environments like the Internet, intranet and distance education programs of interpretation or creation of technology – cutting edge solutions, affordable and reliable for the office, the virtual university and all national and international users of videoconferencing.
Access was facilitated to this new paradigm in teaching and learning agreements or strategic alliances with smart persons who wished to become part of the global village, such as universities, NGOs and private entities, to interact from telecommunications technologies and new methodologies for distance learning via a virtual conglomerate that advises dot com, providing consultation and training with honesty, reliability, efficiency and warmth. Options offered were from videoconferences, seminars, events, courses and rounds of virtual businesses to create and incubate “dot com” in the management and operation thereof, based on electronic marketing.
The MISSION was as follows: ?Portfolio Consultants E.A.T. (Company Voluntary Work) is a conglomerate (holding) companies engaged in research, implementation and training services, training and updating on new technologies and providing efficient, value-added services in telecommunications in the global scope.?
The VISION was as follows: ?Portfolio Consultants e.a.t. is 2004, a solid, cutting edge, nationally recognized, international positioning, and server solutions at the economical and effective research, application and dissemination of both new technologies as cognitive tools for virtual and distance education and as in the incubation of technology companies, with great human and spiritual sense after the acquisition, adaptation and dissemination of knowledge, positive social impact, as our working capital.?
The VALUES espoused were ?Creativity, Effort, Honest, Self-denial.?
Programs that were offered through CONTINUING EDUCATION are given below
The education of the future began yesterday. You could catch up on new technologies applied to education through virtual means.
The following options were available:
In-Person Events or virtual events and blended learning events.
The Virtual University offered Project Planning and Computer Control as well as Comprehensive Project Management. You could learn Effective time management and instrumentation.
Modeling of Control Systems and Automatic Control was available.
If you needed one, you could get a Diploma in Management Training Programs
Courses on Competency-based Content Design and E-learning Courses were available
Conferences such as the Virtual TeleEdu 1 to 3 October 2003 – Virtual Conference on Educational Innovations could be attended. It was possible to Registration of educational experiences. Other options included Virtual Aviation / Instrument Flight
Tele Seminar on New Technologies Applied to Education
If you preferred E-Training / E-learning you could get a Diploma in TV Training facilitators, or a Diploma in University Teaching Technology with Emphasis on Mediation, or a Diploma in Entrepreneurship for Cooperatives
Additional details were available in Bulletin No.1 – Issue N. 2 – Issue N. 3. It was possible to Subscribe to E-groups on Tele-Education and receive five articles on the subject. This newsletter was sent every two weeks.
New methodologies have been developed to advised Colombian institutions in creating proposals for virtual universities and parallel to your “to do” traditional academic. They are: The Virtual University Catholic University North ESCOLME Virtual (Virtual University of the Colombian School of Marketing), The UNAD (Open and Distance University), St. Thomas Virtual University and the EAN (School of Business Administration from Santafe Bogota, among others. 1 is a whole new form, configuration or arrangement of components of any device, tool, instrument, mechanism and another object or part thereof, which allows a better or different operation, use or manufacture of the object that incorporates or to provide any utility, advantage, technical effect that it had not.
This era demands a change in methodology to address research work to learn in an environment, professional and work fast, in haste and without pause. Therefore we impose a style of work, wondering why do things well and not otherwise?, ie, approaching the technological without anxiety, apprehension or fear, on the contrary, with a determined attitude and reflective, less distance on the computer, the cyber and the virtual through gaining knowledge or understanding in these fields, as the first steps to be more suitable professionally: competitive, competent, efficient and effective. Achieving decipher what and who does what he does.